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Smart lock working principle analysis and basic workflow analysis

2019-09-06 10:00:40

For professionals, the working principle of smart locks is not difficult to understand. Each technology has a large amount of data query; but for ordinary users who want to understand smart locks, understanding the general principle is more conducive to understanding intelligence. Lock the industry, understand the use and maintenance of smart locks. Here is a brief introduction to the working principle and hardware components of smart locks.

    The smart code lock consists of a smart monitor and an electronic lock. The two are placed off-site, the intelligent monitor supplies the power required by the electronic lock and receives the alarm information and status information sent by it. It uses the line multiplexing technology to share a two-core cable for the power supply and information transmission, thereby improving the system. Reliability and security.

Smart lock working principle science

  1. The basic principle of intelligent monitor

The intelligent monitor is composed of a single chip, a clock, a keyboard, an LCD display, a memory, a demodulator, a line multiplexing and monitoring, an A/D conversion, a buzzer and the like. Mainly complete the communication with the electronic lock, intelligent analysis and security monitoring of communication lines.

The intelligent monitor is always in the receiving state, receiving alarm information and status information from the electronic lock in a fixed format. For the alarm information, the sound and light alarms are immediately sent through the LCD display and the buzzer; for the status information, it is stored in the memory and compared with the historical state of the electronic lock before this time, and the trend is changed to predict the future. The status changes, and the corresponding information is provided to the duty officer through the LCD display for decision making. While the intelligent monitor establishes communication with the electronic lock, the A/D converter monitors the change of the supply current flowing through the communication line in real time, effectively preventing the damage caused by human factors and ensuring the smooth communication line.


  1. The basic principle of electronic locks

The electronic lock is also based on the 51 series single chip microcomputer (AT89051), with the corresponding hardware circuit, completes the setting, storage, identification and display of the password, drives the electromagnetic actuator and detects the driving current value, and receives the alarm signal sent by the sensor. , send data and other functions.

The MCU receives the typed code and compares it with the password stored in the EEPROM. If the password is correct, the electromagnetic actuator is unlocked; if the password is incorrect, the operator is allowed to re-enter the password, up to three times; if three times If it is not correct, the MCU will alarm the intelligent monitor through the communication line. The single-chip microcomputer sends the unlocking operation and the driving current value of the electromagnetic actuator as the status information to the intelligent monitor at this time, and also sends the alarm information received from the sensor interface to the intelligent monitor as the basis of the intelligent analysis.

Detailed analysis of the principle of smart lock technology

In order to improve the security and reliability of the smart password lock, in addition to the measures taken in the device selection (such as the device with low power consumption and wide temperature range), some key technologies are also adopted in the design.

2.1 Line multiplexing technology

Smart monitors and electronic locks are placed off-site. If the communication line and the power supply line are separated, it is necessary to increase the number of cable cores and increase the safety hazard. This paper adopts the line multiplexing technology, which uses only one two-core cable to realize the transmission of power and information.

At the transmitting end, the electronic lock boosts the modulated data signal through the pulse transformer T and sends it out; at the receiving end, the pulse transformer T steps down the received data signal and sends it to the demodulator to reduce the carrier signal during transmission. In order to reduce mutual interference between communication and power supply, the selection of choke coil L and coupling capacitor C should be considered comprehensively.

In order to prevent the artificial destruction of the communication line and the electromagnetic actuator from burning the coil due to excessive current flowing through the electromagnetic coil for some reason, the current monitoring technology is adopted in the design of the smart code lock.2.3 Data Communication and Preprocessing Technology

The intelligent monitor receives the status information sent by the lock (including the opening and closing of the lock, the first password error, the second password error, the third password error, etc.), the current value flowing through the electromagnetic actuator coil, and The power supply current value of the communication line at this time is read, and the three combine to form a data block, wherein the operation state occupies 1 byte, the supply current occupies 2 bytes, and the coil current occupies 2 bytes. The intelligent monitor is always in the receiving state during communication with the electronic lock. In order to improve the reliability of communication, this paper adopts the method of repeated transmission in the communication protocol. The electronic lock repeatedly transmits 5 times for each group of data. After receiving the data, the intelligent monitor corrects the error by using the large number decoding law. The accuracy of data reception.

In addition, in order to save memory, pre-processing technology is adopted for the received data, that is, after receiving one data, the data is first compared with the set threshold, and if it is greater than the threshold, an over-limit alarm is issued; if less than For the threshold value, the data is compared with the same type of data received on the same day, and the larger one is retained. In this way, the data stored every day is the maximum value in the same type of data.